Bacteria & Bacterial Infections


Micro organism

Micro organism are considerably completely different from viruses. First, they’re much bigger, and secondly, are utterly completed residing organism, which may itself present and reproduce itself with the suitable meals. As soon as within the human physique, some micro organism are situations appropriate for breeding and feeding, – right here and there’s a sure illness.

Till the 20 th century, the combat towards bacterial infections docs didn’t differ from that as compared with viral infections – all efforts have been decreased to assist the physique to outlive and deal with the illness itself. Luckily, trendy medication is noticeably elevated. This occurred because of the creation of a number of teams of medicine, permitting to kill the germ and thus don’t trigger vital hurt to the individual. About this treatment you definitely have heard – antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin), sulfonamides (streptocid, etazol, Biseptol) and one thing else.

After studying these traces, the reader could also be fairly misunderstanding with regard to the truth that bacterial infections are handled way more simply, as in contrast with viral infections. This, sadly, will not be. Not so, firstly, as a result of the micro organism present wonders adaptability, and as scientists have give you newer and newer antibiotics, seem an increasing number of new mutations all recognized micro organism through which these antibiotics don’t work (or are short-lived, or it doesn’t act a lot as we wish). Secondly, the identical bacterial illnesses – for instance, pneumonia or meningitis – could be brought on by lots of of quite a lot of microbes and the physician, typically it is vitally tough to reply the query: “Who’s responsible?” and, accordingly, the best to punish the responsible, assigning the suitable antibiotic.

World micro organism surprisingly numerous as numerous and enormous variety of illnesses brought on by them. Micro organism differ from one another in dimension, structural options, copy and feeding, very completely different situations underneath which they could usually exist. Some micro organism have a spherical form – they’re referred to as cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus, meningococcus, gonococcus), others – an elongated, they’re referred to as rods (dysentery bacillus, pertussis, E.). Micro organism usually should not have a flat floor, and everybody there outgrowths, flagella, cilia.

In contrast to viruses, micro organism will not be inherent in a strict selectivity within the defeat of sure organs of the human physique. However their “preferences” have every microbe. So dysentery bacillus finds optimum situations for himself in a sure part of the massive gut, the causative agent of whooping cough – cells within the airway epithelium, meningococcal (meningitis pathogen) – within the mind membranes. On the identical time, will not be notably Staphylococcus intelligibility and might trigger irritation anyplace – on the pores and skin and bones, and within the lungs, and intestines, and many others.

Now it’s maybe crucial.


The bacterium, which might be a horrible and nasty it didn’t appear, as a rule, doesn’t carry any hurt to the human physique. However as a full-fledged residing beings, micro organism produce merchandise of their very important exercise, which, in flip, is nothing however a really actual poisons. They name these poisons – toxins. Every has its personal micro organism toxins, toxins and it’s, or moderately their particular results on the human physique, the signs of a selected illness are outlined.

And the quantity of poisons, and the chance of every particular person at every toxin, micro organism, their particular person. And toxins and bacterial cell itself across the physique reacts as a virus. These. and the toxin itself and envelope the micro organism and its outgrowths (cilia, flagella) – this particular antigens towards which antibodies are produced by acceptable, eliminating hostile results on the human physique. And the micro organism themselves additionally digested particular cells-eaters – phagocytes.

Usually, the toxins are produced within the destruction of micro organism – that’s, they’re in a lot of the bacterial cell and are launched when it’s destroyed. The micro organism within the human physique is continually damaged – firstly, they themselves are short-lived, and secondly, the actual fact and immunity to micro organism combat and, thirdly, the micro organism are destroyed throughout therapy, all the identical antibiotics, e.g. .

The toxins which might be produced by micro organism referred to as endotoxins loss of life ( “endo” – means inside).

There’s a very small variety of micro organism very important exercise which is accompanied by fixed launch of poisons – ie micro organism can produce toxins, however doesn’t die on the identical time!

Such toxins shaped throughout the lifetime of micro organism, referred to as exotoxins ( “exo” – from the skin, from the skin).

Exotoxins – probably the most harmful poisons of all found or invented by now (!).

Ailments which pathogens produce exotoxin referred to as exotoxic. What’s illness? Diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, gasoline gangrene, anthrax – all these names you’ve heard many instances, that’s, they (the illness), although exotoxic, however, sadly, not unique (pun supposed).

In some infections, the micro organism are capable of produce each exo- and endotoxins. There are complexities within the therapy. Examples of such illnesses – whooping cough, cholera, dysentery, some embodiments.

Hazard exotoxic infections is that antibiotics can’t assist – within the time it should take till they appoint (first as a result of it’s obligatory to place the prognosis), as long as they kill the microbe could also be too late. Antibiotics have finished its job, no micro organism, however toxins stay. They may destroy the physique and, if time doesn’t enter medication, neutralizing toxins (antitoxic serum).

It’s as a result of within the therapy of infections within the hopes exotoxic few antibiotics and serum can’t at all times have time, most significantly – prevention!

It isn’t designed for all infections, however its (prophylaxis) effectively understood ideas: (!) If there’s a toxin, it’s essential to consistently flow into in people antitoxin i.e. antidote. That’s the reason youngsters vaccinations (particularly towards diphtheria and tetanus) – injected toxins are drastically weakened and, because of this, the kid’s physique produces a really respectable immunity as produced antitoxin.


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