In 1928, penicillin was found. Be aware that not invented, not invented, and it’s open. In any case, the very fact is that antibiotics existed and exist in nature so long as there may be nature itself. Sure microorganisms can produce substances that shield them from the damaging results of different microorganisms. These substances and are inherently antibiotics.
His lab was small and darkish. He by no means closed the door to her – a typical thoroughfare. His identify was Alexander Fleming. Then he grew to become a Nobel laureate, and Sir Alexander Fleming. That tendency to Fleming “labor unrest” has led to the invention that, quickly, shocked the world. Fleming was a bacteriologist. Find out how to research the micro organism? Take a sure atmosphere wherein it’s assumed the presence of micro organism (this medium might be something – soil, water, meals, blood, and so on.), and positioned on a flat dish with particular vitamins, which micro organism have to multiply the anticipated. Micro organism develop and the cup are shaped clearly seen factors of various sizes – colonies of microbes. Colonies utilized to particular slides, shade particular dyes after which examined beneath a microscope. Many cups of their end-accumulates within the laboratory. Considered one of them was contaminated with mould. Fleming “solely” drew consideration to the truth that the bacterial colonies (they have been staphylococci) across the mould disappeared – ie, micro organism have been killed. The conclusion of the scientist that mould produces a substance able to destroying microbes, led to the invention of penicillin.
Within the case of the invention of penicillin on this, “producer” of the antibiotic appeared a particular kind of mould. It stays “little or no” – to borrow the mould solely her inherent weapons, study to create these weapons in portions satisfactory to the wants of mankind, and learn to use these weapons. Since 1943, it started industrial manufacturing of penicillin. And from that point antibiotics have change into a obligatory element of contemporary drugs. After a seemingly easy and logical, it seems to make use of these funds. There’s a germ that causes the illness. There’s drugs that may kill germs that trigger illness. Prescribe remedy, kills germs, illness disappears. Quite simple and good turns. However the extra and assign the extra we destroy, the extra issues there … for antibiotics – a really critical weapon. And one should use a critical weapon skillfully.
Therefore, it might appear fairly pure and logical conclusion – to make use of antibiotics can solely be a specialist, the case is correctly educated, briefly, a doctor. In follow, nevertheless, this isn’t so. The theoretical risk of individuals to battle infections a lot that an individual has by no means tried any microbe “crush” in itself alone, is sort of inconceivable to fulfill. Any antibiotic in any pharmacy you’ll be bought and not using a prescription. The variety of followers to be handled independently decreases slowly because of the general decline within the solvency of the inhabitants, however youngsters don’t spare the cash, and the medical doctors are offended if they don’t prescribe something critical.
The writer doesn’t goal to show readers to make use of antibiotics! The issue is seen in the truth that:
– As soon as once more stress the complexity and insecurity of antibiotic remedy;
– Take note of the plain: the very fact itself the vacation spot, and the dose and timing of use, and direct choice of antibiotic – requires highest professionalism – particular and appreciable data, expertise, instinct and customary sense;
– Clarify the that means of some very sensible phrases of well being, make sure you accompany the method of therapy with antibiotics;
– Enumerate and demand on the implementation of the necessary guidelines of using antibiotics. Regulation, it’s pressing for the one who’s handled with antibiotics (data of the foundations to those that deal with with antibiotics, it’s understood).
Antibiotics – is just not the one means that may destroy the physique pathogens. The theoretical risk of using any antimicrobial brokers based mostly on the truth that in sure bacterial cell, there are specific constructions that haven’t any analogues within the human physique. Merely put, it’s good to discover one thing in a microorganism (a protein enzyme), with out which it can’t exist, however that “one thing” should be peculiar to the microbe – that in man such enzymes or proteins such shouldn’t be.
Instance: The cell wall of sure micro organism, in its anatomy, has nothing to do with any cells of any mammal. Naturally, it’s potential (although not straightforward) the creation of a substance that destroys pores and skin micro organism, however not on the similar time damaging human cells. By the way in which, simply the way in which destroying pores and skin micro organism are well-known penicillin, ampicillin, tseporin.
One other instance: in virtually all micro organism has an enzyme that has a sophisticated identify “DNA gyrase.” With out it, the micro organism lose their means to proliferate and die rapidly. Established medicine that destroy the DNA gyrase, and, in fact, have robust antibacterial impact on many micro organism – zanotsin, tsifran, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and so on.
However, simply listed medicine, antibiotics usually are not ??!
This case is just not too clear, and calls for an evidence.
I emphasize once more: antibiotics – substances that some microorganisms produce to destroy different microorganisms.
Some fungi (penitsilium, tsefalosporium, and so on.) produce antibiotics – resembling penicillin, cephalosporin. Some micro organism (Actinomycetes) produce antibiotics – resembling tetracycline, streptomycin.
On the similar time, any pure antibiotic scientists attempting to improve (modify, enhance, make extra energetic towards microbes and fewer harmful to people). Thus, by altering the construction of penicillin, derived its artificial derivatives – oxacillin, ampicillin; by various the tetracycline – doxycycline, methacycline, and so on. Thus, antibiotics are the pure and artificial.
On the similar time, the antimicrobial agent could not have something to do with nature – it may very well be a product solely of the human thoughts, that’s, It’s a substance that man invented himself. On many of those medicine you’re taking, in fact, we heard. It’s well-known sulfonamide (streptocid, etazol, Biseptol), nitrofurans (furazolidone, furagin), fluoroquinolones (already named by us zanotsin, tsifran and so on.).
The that means of the above: antibacterial brokers and antibiotics – it isn’t the identical factor.
There’s a medical time period – “chemotherapy”. Chemotherapy – a therapy of infectious illness medicines. And we listed medicine, – and sulfonamides, and antibiotics, and fluoroquinolones, nitrofurans and – characterize a chemotherapeutic agent or clear anti-microbial agent.
This info has extra theoretical than sensible significance, for the reason that ideas and guidelines of any antimicrobial brokers are the identical. Every part we inform about antibiotics equally be prolonged to the followers and to followers Biseptolum furazolidona, and all different followers to battle germs.
Antibiotics are completely different and it’s fairly apparent. However, utilizing a totally sure antibiotics, medical doctors (I repeat, it’s medical doctors) in every case are based mostly on the fairly particular properties of a specific drug. What are these traits?
The spectrum of motion of antibiotics.
Every antibiotic acts on a strictly sure microorganisms. For instance, penicillin is energetic within the so-called “cocci” – streptococcus, meningococcus, gonococcus, pneumococcus, however has no impact on E. coli, dysentery bacillus, salmonella. Antibiotic polymyxin B, quite the opposite, acts on the rods, however doesn’t act on cocci. Chloramphenicol and ampicillin act on first and second. That’s, the spectrum of motion of chloramphenicol wider than the vary of motion of penicillin. Therefore the plain notion of “broad-spectrum antibiotic” and “narrow-spectrum antibiotic motion.”
Good or dangerous, broad-spectrum antibiotic? On the one hand very properly, as a result of if the pathogen is just not recognized (properly, simply not clear who prompted the actual meningitis, pneumonia or concrete), using broad-spectrum antibiotic can be efficient extra probably. However, such an antibiotic will destroy not solely the pathogen but in addition “peaceable” intestinal microbes that can present itself within the type of dysbiosis. Therefore the plain conclusion – antibiotics are narrow-spectrum (penicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin), are extra preferable than broad-spectrum antibiotics (ampicillin, cephalexin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol). However to deal with it’s narrow-spectrum medical medicine tougher – not simpler to guess, don’t get no assist, and be, ultimately, sorry.
Mechanism of motion of antibiotics.
Some antibiotics are utterly inhibit the expansion of micro organism – ie, destroy them completely. These are referred to as bactericidal antibiotics, they’re a vital cell constructions, destroying microbes rapidly and in giant portions. Penicillin destroys pores and skin micro organism and the probabilities of the existence of the latter is just not. It’s clear that penicillin – a bactericidal antibiotic, as, certainly, and ampicillin, cephalexin, gentamicin.
Some antibiotics work fairly otherwise – they forestall the expansion of micro organism. The colony of microorganisms doesn’t improve micro organism on the one hand, they killed themselves ( “previous age”), on the opposite – actively destroyed immune cells (leukocytes) and the particular person recovers rapidly. Such antibiotics – they’re referred to as bacteriostatic, because it helps the physique to battle infections. Examples – erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol. For those who cease taking early bacteriostatic antibiotics – the illness would return. The impact of the germicide will come sooner.
Distribution of the antibiotic within the physique.
Whichever method didn’t get an antibiotic within the physique, it’s, in any case, is within the blood and spreads all through the physique. On the similar time in a sure organ particular antibiotic accumulates in fairly a certain quantity. And otitis could also be handled with penicillin and ampicillin, ampicillin however within the center ear cavity accumulates higher due to this fact be simpler. Lincomycin antibiotic penetrates properly into the bone and is used for the therapy of osteomyelitis (bone suppurative irritation). Swallowed the antibiotic polymyxin B didn’t absorbed into the blood and act solely within the intestine – it’s handy to deal with intestinal infections.
Distribution within the physique of some trendy medicine in any respect distinctive. For instance, an antibiotic sumamed particularly connected to phagocytes – immune cells that engulf and digest micro organism. If there may be irritation within the physique fireplace phagocytes transfer it again and accumulate in giant numbers within the inflammatory foci. A sumamed strikes with phagocytes – ie pneumonia if the utmost quantity is specifically antibiotic in lungs and pyelonephritis – within the kidney.
ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION ORGANISM ANTIBIOTIC.
“To ship” antibiotic microbial accumulation house might be completely different. You may unfold antibiotic ointment on the pores and skin ulcer. You might be swallowed (tablets, drops, capsules, syrups). You may prick – right into a muscle, right into a vein, into the spinal canal. The route of administration of the antibiotic doesn’t matter – it’s only necessary to the antibiotic time was in the suitable place and in the suitable amount. That’s to say, the strategic aim. However a tactical query – obtain it – is not any much less necessary. Clearly, any pill is clearly extra snug injections. However … Some antibiotics are destroyed within the abdomen, resembling penicillin. Others usually are not absorbed, or barely absorbed from the gut, resembling gentamicin. The affected person could also be vomiting, he could even be unconscious. The impact of the drug ingested will come later than that of the identical medicine administered intravenously – it’s clear that the extra extreme the illness, the extra purpose for the disagreeable injections.
Elimination pathway of antibiotics from the physique.
Some antibiotics – resembling penicillin or gentamicin, in unchanged kind excreted within the urine. This permits, on the one hand, to efficiently deal with kidney and urinary tract illness, however, then again, when a considerable breach of the kidneys, with a lower in quantity of urine can result in extreme accumulation of the antibiotic within the physique (overdose). Different medicine, resembling rifampicin and tetracycline, derived not solely urine but in addition bile. Once more, the plain effectivity within the liver and biliary tract, however particular care with liver failure.
Medicine with out the unintended effects don’t exist. Antibiotics – is not any exception and it’s to place it mildly. Allergic reactions are potential. Some medicine typically trigger allergy symptoms, resembling penicillin or cephalexin, different uncommon, for instance, erythromycin or gentamycin. Sure antibiotics have deleterious (poisonous) results on sure organs. Gentamicin – on the kidney and the auditory nerve, tetracycline – the liver, polymyxin B – on the nervous system, chloramphenicol – on hematopoiesis system, and so on. After receiving erythromycin typically have nausea and vomiting, excessive doses of chloramphenicol trigger hallucinations, and decreased visible acuity, any broad-spectrum antibiotics contribute to the event of dysbiosis …
Now let’s suppose!
On the one hand, it’s apparent the next: receipt of any antimicrobial agent requires necessary data of all that was listed above. That’s all the professionals and cons of all ought to be well-known, in any other case – the consequences of the therapy might be most unpredictable. However, then again, self-swallowing Biseptol, or on the recommendation of a neighbor, placing the kid in a capsule ampicillin, you gave a report of his actions? All of you realize that? In fact, we have no idea. We have no idea, didn’t suppose, didn’t know, like, the perfect … Higher – to know and to suppose …
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW.
– Any antimicrobial agent ought to be administered solely by a doctor!
– Inadmissibility of using antimicrobials in viral infections, ostensibly to be able to forestall – to be able to pre-empt the event of issues. It by no means fails, quite the opposite – it solely will get worse. Firstly, as a result of there’ll all the time be a microbe that survives. Secondly, as a result of, destroying some micro organism, we create the circumstances for the copy of others, rising, moderately than lowering the chance of the identical issues. In brief, the antibiotic ought to be administered when bacterial an infection is already there, moderately than to supposedly forestall it. Essentially the most right angle in the direction of prophylactic antibiotics included within the slogan put ahead by the good thinker MM Zhvanetsky: “Hassle have to fret as they arrive!”.
Prophylactic antibiotics – not all the time evil. After many operations, notably within the stomach cavity, it’s important organs. Throughout the plague mass reception tetracycline can shield towards an infection. It is just necessary to not confuse ideas resembling preventive antibiotic remedy on the whole, and the prophylactic use of antibiotics for viral infections particularly.
– If we provide you with antibiotics (take), in any case don’t cease therapy instantly after it turns into a bit simpler. The required length of therapy might be decided solely by the physician.
– Don’t beg for one thing stronger.
The idea of the energy and weak point of the antibiotic is basically arbitrary. For the typical of our nationwide energy antibiotic is basically on account of its means to empty his pockets and purses. Folks actually need to consider in the truth that if an antibiotic, for instance, “tienam” 1000 instances dearer than penicillin, and it’s a thousand instances simpler. Sure it was not there … The antibiotic therapy there may be such a factor as “the antibiotic of alternative.” These. for every an infection, every particular for micro organism antibiotic is beneficial for use within the first place – and it’s referred to as antibiotic choice. If this isn’t potential – for instance, allergy symptoms, antibiotics are beneficial second line, and so on. Angina – penicillin, otitis – amoxicillin, typhoid fever – chloramphenicol, whooping cough – erythromycin, plague – tetracycline, and so on. Every part could be very costly medicine are used solely in a really critical and happily not very frequent conditions when a specific illness is attributable to a microbe proof against most antibiotics, when there’s a marked discount of immunity.
– Assigning any antibiotic, the physician can’t foresee all of the potential penalties. There are instances of particular person intolerance of a particular particular person of a specific drug. If this has occurred, and after a single oral erythromycin, the kid vomited all evening and complained of stomach ache, the physician is to not blame. Deal with pneumonia might be lots of of various medicine. And fewer than an antibiotic is used, the broader the vary of its actions and, consequently, the upper the value, the better the chance, that can assist. However, the better the chance of poisonous reactions, goiter, immune system suppression. Injections usually tend to rapidly and result in restoration. Nevertheless it hurts, however there could also be festering within the place the place pricked. And if you’re allergic – after capsule washed abdomen, and after the injection – that the wash? The relations of the affected person and the physician is necessary should discover a widespread language. With antibiotics, the physician all the time has the chance to play it protected – injections as an alternative of capsules, 6 instances a day as an alternative of four, cephalexin penicillin as an alternative of 10 days as an alternative of seven … however the golden imply, matching the danger of failure and the chance of fast restoration is basically decided by the conduct of the affected person and his relations . Who’s responsible, if the antibiotic is just not serving to? Certainly solely a health care provider? What is that this for such a physique, which, even with the strongest medicine couldn’t address the an infection! Effectively that is what life needed to manage to convey the immune system to the acute … And I don’t imply that each one medical doctors are angels, and errors, sadly, not unusual. However to shift the emphasis obligatory for a specific affected person doesn’t give a solution to the query “Who’s responsible?”. The query “what to do?” – All the time updated. However, again and again:
– “It was essential to appoint injections!”;